Empathy and Compassion
The Forelaws Principle and the Common Good
From Nation-States to United Albedo Regions
Ending Racism and Terrorism
"The historian of science may be tempted to claim that when paradigms change, the world itself changes with
them." - from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Thomas S. Kuhn, 1962, 2nd ed. 1970).
"the human brain is the most complex and orderly arrangement of matter in the universe." - Isaac Isamov (1920-1992),
professor of biochemistry at Boston University, USA. (not unlike that of all intelligent life of
the order of humankind).
"We are therefore led to inquire into the social arrangements that are conducive to people's rights and
welfare, and to fulfilling their just aspirations - in brief, the common good." - Noam Chomsky,
Linguistics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
"To realize we are all in the same boat and need to walk in each other's shoes." - Edwin Rutsch, founder
and director of Center for Building a Culture of Empathy, USA.
Empathy and compassion - settling the question of why the Universe and intelligent life exist - are Universe
forelaws accounting for, and defining, humankind and all intelligent life. Part and parcel of naturalist Nature
(everything is connected to everything else), the forelaws principle and cosmic genealogy coalesce as
intelligent life philosophy and cosmology . . . and the common good . . . for humankind a new beginning bringing
closure to racism and terrorism while setting the stage for united albedo regions and a common language on Earth.
The forelaws principle leading humanity to a compassionate/cooperative global society on Earth free of nuclear
weapons/energy, racism and terrorism - ultimately realized through united albedo regions - prioritizes empathy
and compassion particularly relevant in early childhood education and in basics of (a) a healthful,
sustainable environment for every planetary citizen, (b) quality health care and affordable housing publicly
supported, (c) education for all in accord with individual capability, (d) creative/productive employment
available for every planetary citizen, (e) post-retirement security.
"We believe we as a country can be a trailblazer for a new age of renewable energy sources," - German Chancellor
Angela Merkel (on phase-out of nuclear energy).
"Several states have used civilian nuclear reactors as a cover to make nuclear weapons. The "spent fuel"
waste produced by a civilian reactor contains plutonium that, if separated out, can be used to make a bomb."
Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism, USA.
Every 230 million years Earth, its occupants and the Sun (our star) orbit the center of the Milky
Way galaxy. The Milky Way is the galactic home of humankind and untold numbers of fellow counterparts,
many having preceded humankind and similarly advanced intelligent life . . . by activism in cosmic genealogy, in
the cosmic community of intelligent life. Cosmic genealogy describes Universe forelaws of empathy
and compassion - for the common good - manifest, from infinity to infinity, in cosmic dissemination of intelligent
life by intelligent life (CDIL). CDIL takes place in a cosmic setting where no two star systems with intelligent
life in terms of solar radiation are exactly the same - explaining the phenomenon of "races" (superficial
genomics before amalgamation in the makeup of intelligent life). On Earth, cosmic genealogy as Universe
reality is seen in the ongoing merger of astronomy and biology (astrobiology), rooted in the 1970/80s to
pioneering research on organic matter in space conducted by astronomers Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) and Chandra
Wickramasinghe (currently, director of Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, UK). Since 1996 Brig Klyce, Director,
Astrobiology Research Trust, USA, has chronicled this unfolding paradigm change in the website Cosmic Ancestry.
The forelaws principle and cosmic genealogy compel heightened interest in cosmic phenomena including particularly
the role of comets and related materials as apparent/specific DNA carriers. NASA's Kepler and Terra
missions are leaders in performing space research and discovery: Kepler compiling data on Earth-like
planets; Terra collecting data on Earth's reflectivity of solar radiation.
"Life comes from space because life comes from life." - Brig Klyce, Director, Astrobiology Research Trust, USA.
"Universities throughout the world are beginning to see astrobiology as a way forward to understand our
place in the Universe." - Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, UK.
Earth, as a future parent planet of intelligent life, is certain to welcome humanity's transition beyond nation-states to united
albedo regions and a compassionate/cooperative global society free of nuclear weapons/energy, racism and terrorism.
Coming to grips with nuclear weapons/energy and with climate change (also with nationalism, militarism, war, racism,
terrorism, capitalism, 194 nation-states and 6,000 languages), the forelaws principle and the common good (empathy and
compassion) begin the movement to united albedo regions. Ending and/or mitigating weather/climate-related
phenomena not limited to droughts, desertification, floods, tornados, lightning-induced wildland fires, and ice
ages - made more pressing in light of the vulnerability of nuclear weapons/energy to climate change and global
terrorism, as well as to catastrophic earthquakes (re: Fukushima) - rests on planet surface reflectivity of solar
radiation referred to as planet albedo. United albedo regions . . . optimizing planet albedo for benign
energy-weather-climate stability, i.e. albedoism . . . engages, interconnects and incorporates - creatively - the
plant kingdom, civil engineering, architecture, urban and rural planning, materials technology, e.g. polymers
changing color with temperature changes.
Among associations not specifically committed but relevant in the movement to united albedo regions is
Washington Geoengineering Consortium, American University, Washington, DC, USA. - "In this effort, we convene
and report on meetings, invite written and other contributions both from important figures representing the
full spectrum of views on geoengineering, and support robust public and civil society interactions . . . The
definition and use of the term ‘geoengineering’ is not fully agreed upon, and given what is at stake,
can be contentious."
Reaching out to, and necessarily including former subscribers to racism and international
terrorism, the movement to united albedo regions - uniting all members of humanity in a cause
and goal for the common good - portrays a compassionate/cooperative global society successful in
addressing among other challenges: nuclear weapons/energy disposal - freshwater and food shortages
- fossil fuels and excessive CO2 emissions - the specter of international trade wars - overpopulation - energy
conservation and global energy sufficiency, the latter supplied by solar energy on a global grid system
- hydrogen produced by solar energy - natural (unmodified)/organic foods including stevia, a plant
replacing refined sugars. Albedoism, ethnicity revisited, astrobiology merging astronomy and
biology, and discovery thus far of over 3000 exoplanets, provide tangible evidence for humanity's destiny in
achieving a compassionate/cooperative global society.
Its landmark and hallmark character defined by digital direct democracy (DDD) unifying all generations both present
and future, empathy and compassion as the way forward - having ended racism and terrorism - ranges from veganism
and non-gmos - to "empathy and compassion particularly relevant in early childhood education"
- to the Forelaws Party and DDD - to united albedo regions - to global water equilibrium - to activism in cosmic
genealogy - to addressing sentient life predation.
Advancing, enhancing, and sustaining Universe forelaws of empathy and compasson on Earth presupposes a geopolitical
vehicle in league with the DEMOCRATHON option, with values, pursuits and goals consistent with the forelaws principle
and the common good - namely, the Forelaws Party. The DEMOCRATHON option ("people power") - functioning in
unison with the Initiative and Referendum currently available in some form in 24 States in the USA and
continuing to grow worldwide (with prospects and efficacy significantly more practicable and widespread since
the advent of Internet communication) - is a strategic and effective political-educational-fundraising
tool, potentially instrumental as a forelaws party cornerstone. "People power" on behalf of
local and global needs can achieve important changes in controversial areas where legislatures
have failed to act (www.forelawsonboard.net/DemocrathonProcess.html).
"There is no such thing as a B12 deficiency, even in 100% raw vegan food eaters. They do not have to eat dirt,
animal products, or take pills to secure coenzymes of B12. Bacteria in the intestinal tract make it for us,
and the metabolically usable and necessary forms of coenzyme B12 are contained in unprocessed, fresh
natural plant foods, particularly in nuts and seeds. The real problem in so-called B12 deficiency is a
failure of digestion and absorption of foods, rather than a deficiency of the vitamin itself . . ." -
Virginia Vetrano, D.C., hM.D., D.Sc.
Residents of Beijing, China's capital, could be drinking freshwater from desalinated seawater within five years. As
part of China's eleventh five-year plan, this source could become a main supply in efforts to deal with the water
shortage (National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) People's Republic of China.) Eminently in order
on a global scale, national and international five-year plans aimed at satisfying freshwater needs, at
job creation, and environmental sustainability through seawater desalination - intermediate and integral to
United Albedo Regions on Earth - address, additionally, climate change and rising sea-levels. The current
growth rate of desalination at coastal locations bodes well for strategic and direct transport of freshwater to
inland points such as Beijing. Mandated and coordinated by progressive efforts the world over,
dramatically accelerated, expanded and sustained seawater desalination - receiving important impetus from the
International Desalination Association - ensures (1) globally plentiful freshwater and food surpluses, (2) relief for low-lying
communities vulnerable to sea-level rise, (3) stabilization of ocean shorelines, (4) enlarged land mass/biomass on Earth,
(5) replenishment of aquifers, (6) freshwater storage in areas which include those where once resided coal and petroleum,
(7) global water equilibrium (the state of balance between amply available freshwater worldwide on one side
and, on the other, relative constancy in planet saltwater sea-level.)
Global water equilibium on Earth envisages a growing network of overland pipelines (new &/or converted to freshwater
use) carrying freshwater from desalination plants - and from seaports (forwarding points for freshwater transported
by tanker ships) - to interior locations for local and regional needs including irrigation and replenishment of aquifers.
Interport transportation of freshwater converted from seawater can be expected to take advantage of surplus marine
tanker capacity coincident with ongoing trends to green energy sources. The same is true with
respect to existing overland pipelines (in the future a medium for the transport of freshwater) now used
in moving petroleum and petroleum products.
In this and all stages of global water equilibrium, from seawater desalination to rolling back
desertification, products made from industrial hemp - and industrial hemp itself as a growing plant -
will make a major contribution. A plant requiring no genetic modification, industrial hemp can be
cultivated with and without irrigation in countries like Afghanistan, Columbia, Mexico, and the USA
- and processed into upwards of 10,000 useful products which include paper, food and building materials.
Any product made from petroleum (not excluding high octane gasoline and plastics)
can be made from industrial hemp. Industrial hemp seeds can produce food such as
bread, hempburgers, milk and ice cream. Hemp fiberboard has been demonstrated to be twice the
strength of wood fiberboard. "Hempcrete" blocks, "lighter, stronger and easier to work with
than masonry concrete", have been manufactured at the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota
(start-up costs were under $10,000.00.)
"Among U.S. states, Maryland, Virginia, and DC are exceptionally vulnerable to
climate change. The states have more than 5,000 miles of Chesapeake and
Atlantic shoreline, almost every inch of which would be degraded or inundated
completely by the projected sea-level rise of up to three feet." - Chesapeake
Climate Action Network.
“Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity cannot survive.” –
His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
"It (darwinism) proclaimed that our true relation is that of competitors and combatants in a struggle for mere
survival . . ." - George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), socialist, author, playwright, vegetarian.
"To suppose that Earth is the only populated world in infinite space is as absurd to believe that in an entire
field sown with millet, only one grain will grow." - Metrodorus of Chios (Greek Philosopher, Fourth
"In less than 20 years, we have gone from not knowing if any other planets exist in the universe, to being able to
look out at the night sky and realize that essentially any star we can see has at least one planet, and a good
number of those are likely to be habitable." - Alan Boss, Science Working Group, NASA Kepler Mission.
"Selecting and implementing a common language will be a major development not only for the nearly 500 million
people of the EU, but also for the more than 6 billion people who populate the rest of the world." - Author Philip Yaffe.
"The globalization process has brought great opportunities as well as new challenges, especially within
communication:" - The Future Global Language.
In settling the question of why the Universe and intelligent life exist, in underlying cosmic dissemination
of intelligent life by intelligent life (ending racism and terrorism), in addressing sentient life predation,
in giving rise to the Forelaws Party and to united albedo regions, and in interrelating intelligent life
meaning, purpose and fulfillment, empathy and compassion (coming of age on Eath) represents a vision,
a new beginning and movement for the common good whose time has come
"SIMPLY PUT, the common good is the well-being of a community considered as a whole. Pursuing the
common good involves thinking about how the various parts and their interrelationships can be maintained,
developed, and corrected so that the whole community flourishes in a way that enhances the well-being
of its various parts." - from Defining "Common Good" in the Digital World, by Deanna B. Marcum, ITHAKA, USA.
The coming of age of empathy and compassion on all planets with intelligent life - exemplifying progressive
science grounded on the forelaws principle and the common good, against the backdrop of life procreation (shaping
intelligent life philosophy and cosmology) - highlights, from infinity to infinity, intelligent life as a gift
with indefinable promise and potential both locally and cosmically.
"A human being is part of the whole, called by us "Universe," a part limited in time
and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something
separated from the rest - a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This
delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to
affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from
this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and
the whole of nature in its beauty." - Albert Einstein.
"It would be good to prevent the vast suffering and countless violent deaths caused by predation."
- Jeff McMahan, Department of Philosophy, University of Oxford, UK.
"The initiative already has led to six completed science textbooks in Tibetan and English, with two more
textbooks in various stages of completion." - from the Robert A. Paul Emory-Tibet Science Initiative,
Emory University, USA.
"Whatever you can do . . . . . or believe you can . . . . . begin it
Boldness has magic . . . . . power . . . . . and genius in it."
"The first law of ecology is that everything is related to everything else" - Barry Commoner (1917-2012), author
of The Closing Circle.
"Other nations, such as Germany, are increasing renewable energy sources, while creating jobs, as
they phase out nuclear energy and seek to reduce carbon emissions.” - Lloyd Marbet, anti-nuclear and
• "We should phase out all (nuclear) plants beginning with those that are close to heavily populated areas." -
Larry Bogart (1914-1991), Coordinator, Citizens Energy Council.
"USGS LCI (Land Cover Institute) is a focal point for advancing the science, knowledge, and applications of
land use and land cover information." - USGS LCI, USA.
"Instead of truth and comprehension, we got deeply unsettling questions about what we can ever hope to know
about the world." - Jim Baggott, author, The Quantum Story: A History of 40 Moments (2011).
"Mathematics addresses only a part of human experience. Much of human experience does not fall under science
or mathematics but under the philosophy of value, including ethics, aesthetics, and political philosophy.
To assert that the world can be explained via mathematics amounts to an act of faith." - Richard Hamming
(1915-1998), American mathematician and computer scientist.
"Ethics is nothing other than Reverence for Life." - Albert Schweitzer.
"I suspect that the cosmic quality of microbiology will seem as obvious to future
generations as the Sun being the centre of the solar system seems obvious to the
present generation" - Sir Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) - "The Relation of Biology to Astronomy".
"But the climaxing observation appeared in year 2002. How exceedingly ironic that 30 years after Fred Hoyle
pointed to NGC 7603 as a crucial system which must force out acceptance of the existence of discordant
redshifts - after a generation has passed - the luminous link between this active Seyfert and its appendage is observed
to have two high redshift, quasar-like objects in it." - Halton C. Arp, American Astronomer, Max Planck
Institute for Astrophysics, and author of Seeing Red, Apeiron, 1998 (refuting "Big-Bang" theory.)
"The first message from an intelligent extraterrestrial civilisation may not emerge from a radio telescope but,
instead, from a DNA sequencing machine." - John Walker, Fourmilab Switzerland.
"We may have different religions, different languages, different colored skin, but we all belong to one human
race." - Kofi Annan, former United Nations Secretary-General.
"I look forward to working with the Steering Committee, Second Nature, and our growing network of
universities and colleges to tackle society's most difficult climate challenges." - President Wim Wiewel,
Portland State University, USA (Chair, Steering Committee, American College and University President's
"After I had given just a few talks about the climate, I realized that the action I was suggesting
to my listeners to take, while essential, were not a match for the problem." - Marshall Saunders,
Founder, Citizens Climate Lobby, USA.
"The dialogue is now shifting gears from climate science to climate action. There's still a lot we need to
learn about the science, but the events of the past year have ended much of the lingering debate and
controversy." - Jane Lubchenco, former administrator of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), 2009 to 2013; currently a distinguished professor in the department of integrative biology at
Oregon State University, while serving as adviser to the university on marine studies issues.
"Location, topography, and the exchange of radiant energy between the sun and Earth ultimately determine weather"
(from Retrieval of Surface Albedo from Space, December, 2002.) - John Maurer, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Terra Mission (NASA, 1999) . . . "carries five instruments that observe Earth's atmosphere, ocean, land, snow and ice,
and energy budget. Taken together, these observations provide unique insight into how the Earth system works
and how it is changing."
"As a joint initiative between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA . . . . . Landsat represents the world's
longest continuously acquired collection of space-based moderate-resolution land remote sensing data.
Four decades of imagery provides a unique resource for those who work in agriculture, geology, forestry,
regional planning, education, mapping, and global change research. Landsat images are also invaluable
for emergency response and disaster relief." - NASA Landsat Science.
"We are particularly interested in the science of prosocial emotions, including moral elevation, compassion,
empathy, and altruism." - The Saturn Lab, Sarina Saturn, Director, Oregon State University, USA.
"A scientific and lay community that understands the neural basis for empathy and compassion and uses
newly developed insights and tools to create methods to enhance the ability of humans to practice these
mental states." - Center for Empathy and Compassion, University of California at San Diego, USA.
"Research shows that young children’s earliest learning experiences can have powerful long-term effects
on their cognitive and emotional development, school achievement, and later life outcomes." - Stand for
Children, Portland, Oregon, USA.
"We believe that scientific study of the developing mind and brain is the next great research frontier and that
discoveries in the next decade will be comparable to those in genetics, biotechnology, and informatics." - Institute for
Learning and Brain Sciences, University of Washington.
Create a multi-disciplinary environment whereby compassion and altruism studies are supported and legitimized
within the broader scientific community." - Vision of The Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education,
"The MBE program's broadest mission is to create a new field of mind, brain, and education, with educators
and researchers who expertly join biology, cognitive science, and education." - Kurt Fischer, Director of
Mind, Brain and Education Program, Harvard University.
"Research projects cover a wide variety of fields, including neuroscience, psychology, political science
and economics." - Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute,
Read Montague, Director.
“…respect for oneself, understanding and compassion for others, and a sense of responsibility for the
world, its citizens and its future.” - Mary Gordon, founder of Roots of Empathy and author of Roots of Empathy:
Changing the World, Child by Child (2005.)
"CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — A new approach to desalination being developed by researchers at MIT and
in South Korea could lead to small, portable desalination units that could be powered by solar cells or batteries
and could deliver enough fresh water to supply the needs of a family or small village. As an added
bonus, the system would also remove many contaminants, viruses and bacteria at the same time." . . . . . Source:
“Direct Seawater Desalination by Ion Concentration Polarization,” by Sung Jae Kim, Sung Hee Ko,
Kwan Hyoung Kang, and Jongyoon Han. Nature Nanotechnology, March 21, 2010. - from MIT News 23 March 2010.
". . . we have found a way to make a membrane (for use in seawater desalination) that can produce higher amounts
of water compared to the commercial membranes being used today, while using the same process." - Mohammed
Rasool Qtaishat, Water for All.
"Concerns about global warming, energy consumption and increased demand
for potable water sources are causing a dramatic expansion of the desalination
industry. These changes present an exciting opportunity for IDA to play a more
centralized role in speaking for the industry to increase public awareness of the
many benefits of desalination, including drought-proof reliability, expandability,
availability and potentially unlimited production." Lisa Henthorne,
International Desalination Association.
Protection from Internet malware, such as ongoing Conficker which has infected millions of computers
since 2008, is fundamental to realization of a compassionate/cooperative global society on Earth.
"That leads me to my next point, which is how we can more broadly engage each of you – students, educators, researchers,
engineers, and the larger academic community – in our nation's cybersecurity efforts. To meet the challenges I've
discussed, DHS needs a world-class cybersecurity team – a strong, dependable pipeline for the future." -
Janet Napolitano, former Secretary, Department of Homeland Security, at San Jose State University, April 16, 2012.
"This is one of the defining battles of our age, one that takes place for the most part out of the public eye." -
Mark Bowden, author of Worm: The First Digital World War (Atlantic Monthly Press, 2011.)
"The hazard of fission products persists for a time that is longer than any I can conceive." - Larry Bogart (1914-1991),
"Of course, today, for science in particular, electronic communication makes possible communities of individuals
from all corners of the world. The most direct evolution toward an enlightened science is for
these groups to just go about supporting each other in doing science free of disproved, official assumptions."
- Halton C. Arp.
"Without in any way ceasing our direct attack upon the institution (war), we may well consider the effects if we cut the
umbilical cord to its mother evil, the animal abattoir." - from The Recovery of Culture (Diet and War) by Henry
Bailey Stevens, 1949.
"Win-win sees life as a cooperative arena, not a competitive one. Win-win is a frame of mind and heart that constantly
seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions." - Author Steven R. Covey (1932-2012.)
“From the right to know and the duty to inquire flows the obligation to act.” - Sandra Steingraber ("Rachel
Carson of the 21st Century"), author of Living Downstream (1997, 2010.)
“A man can do what he wants, but not want what he wants.” - Arthur Schopenhauer.
"D. But greatest of all would be the effect upon our ethical and aesthetic culture if we made ourselves
consistent with that primate nature which was built over long ages into our very genes. We have tried to
operate a church and a schoolhouse at one end of the street and a slaughterhouse at the other, to fill our
minds with kindness and our stomachs with tortured flesh; to teach peace and eat like beasts of prey. But
we have overlooked the moral in the story of Diomedes. Each generation has run amok and torn us to pieces
in turn for the ugly lies which it has been taught - viz. that animals must be killed for food and people
for military objectives." - from The Recovery of Culture (Diet and War) by Henry Bailey Stevens, 1949.
"Our goal at nlb is to make a positive impact in the lives of our team members, our patrons and our planet. At nlb,
we always strive to be “next level” - Next Level Burger (100% vegan restaurant), Bend, Oregon, USA
. . . "saving the world one burger at a time."
The Awesome Foundation is a global community advancing the interest of awesome in the universe, $1000 at a time.
"We believe that everyone deserves an informed choice about whether or not to consume genetically
modified organisms." - The Non-GMO Project.
"If you are just learning about GMOs for the first time, we know you have many questions. We have
compiled some resources for you." - Moms Across America.
"The Red Robinhood Global Foundation for Kids (Non-Profit)
"The mission statement of the camp is to work with inner-city kids and teach them essential basics of early
childhood education. Empathy and compassion to the younger generations shall make a tremendous difference
in their lives.
Academics, survival skills, languages, horseback riding, camping, and diet, will fulfill their young lives.
Different facets of our camp will change the young lives of these kids, and make them become leaders
among their peers.
Baseball, basketball, tennis, soccer, and other non-contact sports, are many activities in which children
will participate. After many different processes and classes, the children will become an aid
to a special needs child, and they will learn many things from them being all they can be. We will
instill the importance of early childhood education. Early childhood education is the key because
it will provide a positive foundation and a secure future for children.
On graduation weekend parents will attend all of the classes and activities throughout the weekend,
ending in a graduation ceremony by candlelight. This camp will change the lives of
children all over the world. All food at the camp will be prepared non-GMO."
Proposal by Edwin Lee Holland (1958-)
"Though butterflies may not be as efficient as bees in pollinating plants and crops, butterflies certainly do their
fair share in bringing about seed and fruit production�and definitely are more pleasing to watch." -
Candice Hawkinson, Galveston County Master Gardiners, USA.
"To ignite a passion for inquiry, innovation and investigation that will instill a compassionate commitment
to enrich the quality of life in school, community and country and make an enduring difference to our world."
- Mission of the Princeton International School of Mathematics and Science.
"I endorse wholeheartedly The Forelaws Principle" - Brig Klyce, Director, Astrobiology Research Trust, USA.
". . . Which then means that everyone has their own perception or version of `reality'. That's because
each of us `physically' perceives the external world slightly differently, and each of us carries a
unique baggage of a life-time's concepts and assumptions which further influence those perceptions."
- Ray Dickenson, Editor, Perceptions.
". . . herald a new worldview that I hope will unite the many nations and races of people that inhabit
our planet. To realize that our life is only a minute component of an all pervading cosmic living system,
and the knowledge that our genetic brothers and sisters still lurk amidst stars will, I hope, change the
way we look at our trivial differences and ourselves." - Dr. Chandra Wickramasinghe, director,
Buckingham Centre for Astrobiology, UK, whose works include Evolution from Space (1981)
co-authored with Sir Fred Hoyle (1915-2001).
Forelaws on Board